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Stainless Steel Round Tube Bright Polish 304

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Stainless Steel Round Tube Bright Polish 304

Stainless Steel Round Tube Bright Polish 304

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Stainless steels are alloys containing iron, relatively low carbon, a minimum 10.5% chromium and up to 30% nickel. However they are typically 18% chromium and 8% nickel. For increased corrosion resistance or for manufacturing requirements in specifi c applications, chromium may be increased and other elements such as manganese, aluminum, titanium and/or molybdenum may be added as required. Stainless steels are sometimes called corrosion-resisting steels since the terms stainless may suggest non-staining. It does not mean non-staining in all environments, but less staining and more resistant to corrosive attack when compared with steels containing less than 10.5% chromium. What Makes Stainless Steel Resist Corrosion? Chromium [the key element in stainless steels] in excess of about 10.5% forms a tenacious, refractory oxide protective fi lm on any exposed layer, i.e. a corrosion barrier. This relatively impervious fi lm is considered to be selfhealing or self-restoring. It will, if broken, repair itself spontaneously upon re-exposure to an oxidizing agent such as air or nitric acid. Resistance to corrosive attack under specifi c conditions is enhanced by progressively increasing chromium over 10.5% and/or by the addition of other elements such as nickel, molybdenum and copper. Types of Stainless Steel Stainless steels are grouped according to the metallurgical structure which forms when they are cooled from high temperatures. Four basic types of stainless steel recognised are: • Duplex • Austenitic • Ferritic • Martensitic Duplex Stainless Steel Duplex has a structure of approximately equal amounts of ferrite and austenite. Chromium content varies from 18%-28% and 4.5%-8% nickel, with most grades also containing Molybdenum. features: • High resistance to stress corrosion cracking • Increased level of passivity • Good welding and formability • Higher tensile and yield strengths than austenitic and ferritic grades Austenitic Stainless Steel [301, 304, 304L, 316, 316L 321, 310]; Basic composition of austenitic stainless steel is 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Austenitic grades are the most commonly used and accounts for more than 70% of production with type 304 the most common. The name comes from their stable metallurgical structure at room temperature, which is a single phase of austenitic. Austenitic stainless steels have the following features • Can be strengthened by cold working [up to 4 times] • Easily welded • High ductility • Good corrosion resistance • Suitable for high temperatures to [e.g. 310 to 1100°C] • Suitable for low temperatures [including cryogenic applications • Is non-magnetic Ferritic Stainless Steel [409, 430, 3CR12] These are nickel free stainless steels. Varying chromium content of 12% to 18%, but a lower carbon content. They derive their name from the ferritic metallurgical structure which is stable at room temperature. When compared with austenitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels have the following features; • Less expensive • Lower corrosion resistance • Can be welded, but requires more care • Easily formed [bent, cut, etc.] • Moderate high temperature [up to 800°C for 430] • Slight increases in strength by cold working [up to 50%] • Superior resistance to stress corrosion cracking • Is magnetic Martensitic Stainless Steel These stainless steels are alloys of iron, chromium [12 to 18%] and carbon [up to 1%]. These stainless steels can be hardened by heat treatment. This type of stainless steel is used where high mechanical strength combined with corrosion resistance is required [e.g. knives]. 4 AUSTENITIC GRADE APPLICATION PROPERTIES 304 Architecture [exterior & interior];  food processing; handling and serving equipment; saucepans;  hospital equipment; rainwater goods;  household appliances; domestic sinks and laundry troughs, generaldeep drawing applications; brewing and dairy equipment; evaporators; drums; barrels; heat exchangers and refrigerator parts. A general purpose austenitic  corrosion resistant steel.  Excellent deep drawing and cold forming qualities in the annealed condition.  Can be polished to a high fi nish.  Readily weldable for use in moderate corrosion resistant applications.  Using appropriate techniques, 304 can be welded in thickness up to 12mm without subsequent heat treatment unless it is required forstress 304L Chemical plant; food processing equipment; and for use in coal and petroleum industry. An extra-low carbon austenitic stainless steel, with general corrosion resistance similar to 304, but with greater resistance to inter granular corrosion. Can be welded in greater thickness than 304, or heated for appreciable periods of time above 500°C without the need for subsequent solution heat treatment. Recommended when fabricating thickness in excess of 12mm, or where high heat input methods are used and subsequent solution heat treatment cannot be performed. 316 Exterior applications subject to severe industrial or marine atmospheres; chemical; textile; photographic and paper making equipment; wine vats. More resistant to certain corrosive conditions than the standard nonmolybdenum bearing austenitic stainless steel. Suitable where protection is required from highly corrosive non-oxidising acids. Is used for plant and equipment in chemical manufacture. Has moderate deep drawing and cold forming properties. Able to be welded in thickness up to 12mm without subsequent heat treatment for most applications. 316L Chemical plant and food processing equipment. An extra low carbon modifi cation for 316, with similar corrosion resistance. Intended for heavier sheet or plate fabrication where welding without subsequent heat treatment is required. Can be welded in heavy sections without the risk of inter-granular corrosion [weld decay] in the as-welded condition and also in the stress relieved condition under most circumstances. Suitable for polishing to a bright fi nish. FERRITIC GRADE APPLICATION PROPERTIES 409 Automotive exhaust components. Ferritic heat resistant chromium steel. Good workability, formability and moderate resistance to corrosion. 430 Interior architecture and automotive trim; domestic appliances; restaurant equipment; stove and heater components. A 17% chromium stainless steel. Good resistance to normal atmospheric corrosive conditions. Can be used with various chemicals, such as nitric acid, caustic soda, ammonia, detergents and alkalis. Moderate ductility for forming and drawing operations. Not as suitable for welding as austenitic grades, as welds tend to be brittle. Satisfactory for resistance to scale and oxidation up to approximately 800°C. PAGE 6 MILL FINISHES FINISH 1 Hot rolled, annealed and pickled.(HRAP)  Generally used when smoothness and uniformity of finish are not important. 2D Cold-rolled,  softened and de scaled. A uniform, matt finish 2B Cold-rolled, * softened, de scaled and lightly rolled on polished rolls. * A smooth fi nish for general applications. * A brighter fi nish than 2D. BA Bright Annealed.  A cold-rolled reflective finish retained through annealing Mechanically Ground Finish  Finish num 3 “Ground” a uniform finish generally obtained with 100-180 grit size.  Finish num 4 “Brushed” polished with 120-240 grit Has a grained texture, not highly reflective, which is suitable for general purposes. Meets international 3A standard of hygiene.  Finish num 8 ”Polished”. Mirror finished for reflectiveness. Has a bright reflective finish with a medium degree of image clarity.

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